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A quickly consultant to melanoma Epidemiology is a perfect addition to Springer Briefs in melanoma learn. The short offers middle recommendations in melanoma epidemiology and likewise provides a photograph of the epidemiology of seventeen human cancers. The short goals to provide-with quantitative focus-estimates of the worldwide burden of neoplasms, of contemporary and certain destiny developments, distribution, factors and techniques for prevention for significant teams of cancers. ultimately, the short will supply an outline of severals elements that reason melanoma together with nutritional components, tobacco smoking, weight problems and alcohol consumption.
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Extra resources for A Quick Guide to Cancer Epidemiology
Almost certainly, these include a more varied and affluent diet and better food conservation, including refrigeration, as well as the control of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Whether improved diagnosis and treatment has also played some role on the favorable trends in gastric cancer, particularly over most recent calendar periods, however, remains open to question. Several intervention trials have also been conducted involving nutrient supplements and stomach cancer. In one of these trials, which was conducted in a Chinese population known to be micronutrient deficient, a combination supplement of β-carotene, vitamin E and selenium did result in a small reduction in the risk of stomach cancer (Blot 1997), but recent findings on the issue on other, better nourished populations, are largely negative (Plummer et al.
The best known risk factor for pancreatic cancer is tobacco smoking. The risk in smokers is about twofold higher than that in non-smokers (Gandini et al. 2008), and a dose–response relationship and a favourable effect of quitting smoking have been shown in many populations. The proportion of cases of pancreatic cancer 34 4 Distribution, Causes and Prevention of Individual Neoplasms attributable to tobacco smoking has been estimated to be 15–20 % (Bosetti et al. 2012b). Some of the features of the descriptive epidemiology of pancreatic cancer (that is, a high incidence among Blacks in the USA as compared to a low incidence in Africa, and a higher risk among men and urban residents) can be explained by differences in smoking habits.
The increased rate of cholecystectomy in many high resource countries is probably responsible for the temporal decreasing trend of gallbladder cancer (Randi et al. 2006). Other suspected risk factors for gallbladder cancer include chronic inflammation, biliary stasis and infection, in particular status of chronic typhoid and paratyphoid carrier, history of gastric resection, reproductive history resulting in increased exposure to endogenous oestrogens and progesterone, obesity and, possibly, increased energy intake.