Academic Freedom and the Japanese Imperial University, by Byron K. Marshall

By Byron K. Marshall

Byron okay. Marshall deals right here a dramatic examine of the altering nature and boundaries of educational freedom in prewar Japan, from the Meiji recovery to the eve of worldwide warfare II.Meiji leaders based Tokyo Imperial collage within the past due 19th century to supply their new govt with worthwhile technical and theoretical wisdom. an educational elite, armed with Western studying, steadily emerged and wielded major impression through the country. while a few school contributors criticized the behavior of the Russo-Japanese battle the govt. threatened dismissals. the college and management banded jointly, forcing the govt to backpedal. by way of 1939, besides the fact that, this unity had eroded. the traditional cause of this erosion has been the inability of a convention of autonomy between prewar jap universities. Marshall argues in its place that those later purges resulted from the university's 40-year fixation on institutional autonomy on the cost of educational freedom.Marshall's finely nuanced research is complemented by means of large use of quantitative, biographical, and archival assets.

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After taking his degree at Todai in 1886, Tomizu attended Hozumi Nobushige's alma mater, Middle Temple. Tomii Masaaki (1858-1935), by contrast, was the son of a Tokugawa shogunal official. He had attended the Tokyo Foreign Language School, rather than the Kaisei Gakko, but in 1877 had been chosen to study at the University of Lyons. After six years abroad, Tomii returned to take a post in the Justice Ministry and serve as part-time lecturer at Todai. In 1885, at twenty-seven, he was assigned to the school full time and was promoted to professor.

Albeit an extreme case, the Mitsukuris were by no means unique. As had been true in the Tokugawa era, sons frequently followed their fathers into scholarly pursuits. Nor was it uncommon for Meiji academics to have brothers or brothers-inlaw who were also academics. They themselves often chose promising young scholars, either from among their own students or others, as husbands for one or more of their daughters. The Law College offered many examples of what were sometimes multiple family ties. Terao Toru's brother was director of the Todai astronomical observatory.

On Nishi's attitudes see Havens, Nishi Amane and Modern Japanese Thought, pp. 66-67. " < previous page page_27 next page > < previous page page_28 next page > Page 28 and skills assembled at the institute too valuable a resource to be ignored even if some of these men originally had been, at best, lukewarm toward the Restoration movement. Hence the Meiji government, rather than attempt further compromise with intramural strife, responded to the protests of the nativist scholars by disbanding the university.

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