By George Klein, Sidney Weinhouse, Alexander Haddow (Eds.)
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A tumor virus may bring about changes in transformed cells other than the development of TSTA, and some of these changes may represent new antigenicities. Therefore, it cannot be said that different in vitro tests all measure TSTA. For this reason, the antigen or antigens detected by in vitro tests will be designated as surface or S-antigen(s) . I n this section, we will analyze the S-antigen(s) with respect to their detection, specificity, and nature. Tevethia et al. (1965) first demonstrated S-antigen in SV40-transformed cells by the indirect immunofluorescence test using sera from SV40-vaccinated hamsters that had rejected a transplant of virus-free SV40 tumor cells.
The oncogenicity of SV40 can also be prevented by inoculating hamsters in the latent period before tumor appearance with nontransplantable syngeneic or xenogeneic SV40-transformed cells. Using this method, Girardi (1965) demonstrated the cross-reactivity between the TSTA of SV40-transformed human cells and that of SV40-transformcd hamster cells. F. Jensen and Defendi (1968) used the same technique to demonstrate the absence of SV40 TSTA in simian cells transformed by ultraviolet light-irradiated defective SV40 (PARA), However, it should be pointed out that these latter cells were not tested for their ability to immunize hamsters against challenge with an immunosensitive SV40 tumor cell line.
A. , 1963; Koch and Sabin, 1963). , 1964a; Pope and Rowe, 20 J. S. BUTEL, S. S. TEVETHIA, AXD J . L. MELNICK 1964). A typical pattern of nuclear fluorescence by SV40 T-antigen is shown in Fig. 1. , 1965). Kinctic studies showed that T-antigen appears 12-24 hours after infection with SV40, prior to the appearance of viral capsid antigen and progeny virions. , 1965a). 1. Inimunofluorescence detection of SV40 T-antigen localized in nucleus of rell. X 400. PAPOVAVIRUS SV40 21 originating from different species are antigenically similar.