By Stephen Edge, David R. Byrd, Carolyn C. Compton, April G. Fritz, Frederick L. Greene, Andrew Trotti
Equipped via ailment web site into 57 accomplished chapters, the absolutely revised and updated Seventh variation of the AJCC melanoma Staging handbook brings jointly all at present to be had details on staging of melanoma at numerous anatomic websites and contains newly bought wisdom at the etiology and pathology of melanoma. a number of new line drawings illustrate key anatomic websites in the course of the textual content.
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Extra info for AJCC Cancer Staging Manual Edition 7
13 This model provides a method for estimating the influence of multiple covariates on the survival distribution from data that include censored observations. Covariates are the multiple factors to be studied in association with survival. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, the covariates may be categorical variables such as race, interval measures such as age, or laboratory test results. Specifics of these methods are beyond the scope of this chapter. Fortunately, many readily accessible computer packages for statistical analysis now permit the methods to be applied quite easily by the knowledgeable analyst.
Residual Tumor and Surgical Margins. The absence or presence of residual tumor after treatment is described by the symbol R. cTNM and pTNM describe the extent of cancer in general without consideration of treatment. cTNM and pTNM can be supplemented by the R classification, which deals with the tumor status after treatment. In some cases treated with surgery and/or with neoadjuvant therapy there will be residual tumor at the primary site after treatment because of incomplete resection or local and regional disease that extends beyond the limit or ability of resection.
A revised chapter on nonmelanoma skin cancers has also been added to the Manual (see Chap. 29). The T and N staging for head and neck skin cancers is consistent with other cutaneous sites in the body. All these chapters apply to epithelial cancers only. Mucosal melanoma warrants separate consideration, and the approach to these lesions is outlined in a separate chapter that addresses mucosal melanoma in all sites of the head and neck (see Chap. 9). Regional Lymph Nodes. The status of the regional lymph nodes in head and neck cancer is of such prognostic importance that the cervical nodes must be assessed for each patient and tumor.