By J. Randolph Kissell;Robert L. Ferry
Technical suggestions and notion for designing aluminum structuresAluminum buildings, moment variation demonstrates how powerful, light-weight, corrosion-resistant aluminum opens up a complete new global of layout probabilities for engineering and structure pros. Keyed to the revised Specification for Aluminum buildings of the 2000 variation of the Aluminum layout handbook, it presents fast look-up tables for layout calculations; examples of lately equipped aluminum structures-from structures to bridges; and a comparability of aluminum to different structural fabrics, fairly metal.
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Extra info for Aluminum Structures: A Guide to Their Specifications and Design
The number following this designation indicates the degree of strain-hardening remaining after the product has been thermally treated as part of the painting or lacquering curing. The corresponding H2X or H3X mechanical property limits apply. The digit following the designation H1, H2, H3, or H4 indicates the degree of strain-hardening. Number 8 is for the tempers with the highest ultimate tensile strength normally produced and is sometimes called full-hard. Number 4 is for tempers whose ultimate strength is approximately midway between that of the O temper and the HX8 temper, and so is sometimes called halfhard.
4. The third digit, when used, indicates a variation in the degree of temper or the mechanical properties of a two-digit temper. An example is pattern or embossed sheet made from the H12, H22, or H32 tempers; these are assigned H124, H224, or H324 tempers, respectively, since the additional strain hardening from embossing causes a slight change in the mechanical properties. 4 ALUMINUM ALLOYS AND TEMPERS 21 Heat-Treated Tempers For heat-treated tempers, the numbers 1 through 10 following the ‘‘T’’ denote: T1 Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition.
The temper designation follows the alloy designation, the two being separated by a hyphen, for example, 5052-H32. Basic temper designations are letters. Subdivisions of the basic tempers are given by one or more numbers following the letter. 4 ALUMINUM ALLOYS AND TEMPERS 19 F As fabricated. Applies to the products of shaping processes in which no special control over thermal conditions or strain hardening is employed. For wrought products, no mechanical property limits exist. O Annealed. Applies to wrought products that are annealed to obtain the lowest strength temper, and to cast products that are annealed to improve ductility and dimensional stability.