By J. R. Averill
In contemporary years, greatly has been written concerning aggression; one other e-book at the related subject might sound superfluous at the present. even though, the current quantity isn't really just-or even primarily-about aggres sion. it's, fairly, a booklet on anger. Anger and aggression are heavily similar phenomena, and it's not attainable to debate one with no the opposite. but, no longer all anger is competitive, nor can all aggression be attributed to anger. consequently, a little bit assorted concerns observe to every. much more importantly, the kind of theoretical generalizations you can actually make differs based upon no matter if the first concentration is on anger or aggression. the current quantity is subtitled "an essay on emotion." this means that the generalizations to be drawn have extra to do with emotional responses (e.g., grief, love, envy, etc.) than with quite a few varieties of aggression (e.g., riots, struggle, crimes of violence, etc.). acknowledged a little otherwise, anger is right here getting used as a paradigm case for the examine of emotion, now not for the research of aggression.
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Extra info for Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion
In some species, the initial stages of mating show a superficial resemblance to intermale or even predatory aggression. Of course, the consequences of aggressive courtship and true fighting are quite different. Nevertheless, sex-related aggression in animals sometimes occurs independently of reproductive behavior, as when males attack females in estrus. Interrelationships Among Aggressive Systems One might argue with the specifics of the above classification scheme. Irritable aggression, for example, appears to be a very broad and ill-defined class, and with increased research it may be possible to identify still other aggressive systems.
It is not, however, limited to anyone theoretical orientation. From a behaviorist point of view, Skinner (1953) has warned against the tendency to identify the emotions not only with subjective states, but also with physiological changes or expressive reactions. He argues that the names of the so-called emotions serve to classify behavior with respect to various circumstances which affect its probability. The safest practice is to hold to the adjectival form. Just as the hungry organism can be accounted for without too much difficulty, although "hunger" is another matter, so by describing behavior as fearful, affectionate, timid, and so on, we are not led to look for things called emotions.
Of course, the consequences of aggressive courtship and true fighting are quite different. Nevertheless, sex-related aggression in animals sometimes occurs independently of reproductive behavior, as when males attack females in estrus. Interrelationships Among Aggressive Systems One might argue with the specifics of the above classification scheme. Irritable aggression, for example, appears to be a very broad and ill-defined class, and with increased research it may be possible to identify still other aggressive systems.