Applications in Ecological Engineering [A Derivative of Enc. by S. Jorgensen

By S. Jorgensen

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The second stage of EIA process, the scoping stage, takes into account all key activities connected to a bridge construction and operation. The impact can be separated into impact during the preparation, construction, and operational period. The development would involve the excavation of construction materials, the excavation of abutments, construction of the bridge, access roads, and stabilization of banks. There are some key operations during precon struction, construction, and operational and maintenance periods, which can be used as a guide for assessing impact.

Any activity that is predicted to lead to exceed a regulated or guideline value of a parameter is judged significant. The likelihood of occurrence includes the probability of occurrence; or where insufficient data are available to permit the estimation of probability, the degree of uncer tainty has to be considered. It is important that during impact assessment, the ‘pre cautionary principle’ is applied. ’’ This is to be applied to avoid irreversible losses. In order to be considered a significant environmental impact with respect to the biological environment, a deviation from background must be judged to cause changes in the process or state within the bounded area resulting in a sustained depression of fitness or density below naturally occurring levels.

This section describes the process used to identify valued environmental com ponents (VECs) which involves issue scoping and pathway analysis. The VECs are determined on the basis of perceived public concerns related to social, cul tural, economic, or esthetic values. Generally, VECs are defined as those aspects of the ecosystem or associated socioeconomic systems that are important to humans. The components could include the following: • components which may be important socially, • components which may be essential to the food web, Structure and Scope of Matters Addressed in an EIS Introduction.

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