Architecture of Molecules by Linus Carl Pauling, Roger Hayward

By Linus Carl Pauling, Roger Hayward

Roger Hayward (1899-1979) used to be an architect, artist, clinical illustrator, and inventor. at the present time, he's most likely most sensible remembered for the pastel drawings he created for The structure of Molecules, a booklet coauthored via Linus Pauling and Hayward, released in 1964. Hayward drew fifty seven appealing plates and Pauling wrote easy-to-understand texts accompanying each one plates. The ebook brought a variety of subject matters in chemistry to most people, together with atomic constitution, constitution of small molecules, crystal constitution, and protein constitution. It used to be one of many first books during which artwork and technological know-how are completely mixed jointly. Nature journal known as it “a interesting paintings of art”.

What made the ebook so particular was once using pastel as drawing media. so much molecules within the e-book are international to most people. The pastel rendering of those molecules, even if, introduced a feeling of familiarity to readers. Hayward additionally paid loads of realization to the colours of the molecules. even though the colour palette are in response to the only utilized by scientists, Hayward made a few refined alterations in order that the colours are smooth and delightful. The pastel rendering and smooth colours made the molecules appear like anything we observed in dreams.

In those attractive plates, Hayward additionally displayed his outstanding abilities for visualize advanced 3D constructions corresponding to crystals. we need to do not forget that those drawings have been performed lengthy ahead of the supply of special effects.

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Elementary nitrogen is diatomic, with formula No. Its structural formula, :N=N: corresponds to the sharing of three electron pairs between the two nitro- gen atoms; these two atoms are said to be connected to one another by bond is shown as consisting of The interatomic distance in N2 is 1. 10 A. The element phosphorus when condensed from the vapor forms waxy, colorless crystals, called white phosphorus. These crystals and the vapor contain P4 molecules, with the tetrahedral structure shown in the drawing.

Y THE METHANE MOLECULE Methane, which has the formula CH4, hydrocarbon 14 is a compound the simplest hydrocarbon (a is of hydrogen and carbon). of natural gas and petroleum, and is produced ponds by the decomposition of organic matter. in It is a constituent marshes and stagnant It is the main constituent of intestinal gases. In 1858 the Scottish chemist A. S. mulas Couper invented valence-bond compounds and wrote for chemical H for- the formula H \ / C / \ H H for methane. Then in 1874 the 22-year-old Dutch chemist Jacobus Hendricus van"t Hoff pointed out that some properties of substances could be simply explained by the assumption that the four bonds formed by a carbon atom are directed toward the corners of a tetrahedron, with the carbon atom at its center, as shown in the adjacent drawing.

5°, and staggered orientation about the carbon-carbon bonds. :•» /--' I ^ * THE CYCLOPROPANE MOLECULE Cyclopropane is a gas at ordinary conditions. It can be condensed to a At one liquid by increasing the pressure or decreasing the temperature. 20 atmosphere pressure When inhaled it becomes a it liquid at —34° Centigrade. produces unconsciousness (loss of awareness of the environment) and anesthesia (loss of feeling and sensation). anesthetic agent, except for one disadvantage: explode if ignited by an electrostatic spark its a good air may It is mixtures with and thus cause the death of the patient.

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