ASM Handbook: Volume 10: Materials Characterization (Asm by George M. Crankovic

By George M. Crankovic

This quantity offers you an simply understood reference ebook on smooth analytical ideas. With over 950 illustrations and ninety five tables, the emphasis is at the useful instead of theoretical, describing the commonest functions and barriers of every process.

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Harrison, Chemical Homogenization of Biological Tissues, Anal. , Vol 55, 1983, p 2431 19. K. Taylor, Principles of Quality Assurance, NBSIR 85-3105, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, 1985 20. F. I. Hoffman, Outlines of Methods of Chemical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1938 21. G. K. Taylor, "A Survey of the Recent Literature on Sampling for Chemical Analysis," NBS Technical Note 1153, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, 1982 22. G, Kratochvil, D. K. Taylor, Sampling for Chemical Analysis, Anal.

For example, if an analysis of variance has provided estimates of σ 11 , σ 22 and σ 33 for the selection of strata, the sampling within each strata, and the measurement, each contributes to the overall variance by: σ² = σ 32 σ 12 σ 22 + + n1 n1n2 n1n2 n3 (Eq 7) The minimum cost c for a fixed value of σ2 is obtained (Ref 13): (Eq 8) (Eq 9) and (Eq 10) Because n2 and n3 are not affected by the value selected for σ2, if σ2 is to be reduced, the number of strata n1 sampled should be reduced while holding n2 and n3 constant.

Equation 5 also applies to this situation. If the units vary significantly in weight or volume, results should be weighted accordingly. For homogeneous materials, including many liquids and gases, σ w2 is zero, and the second term on the right side of Eq 5 drops out. If all units are sampled, nb = N, and the first term on the right of Eq 5 also drops out. References cited in this section 2. G. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, Aug 1963, p 2-13 6. 05, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1984, p 410-443 7.

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