ASM Metals Handbook, Volume 14: Forming and Forging by American Society for Metals, Joseph R. Davis, S. L. Semiatin

By American Society for Metals, Joseph R. Davis, S. L. Semiatin

ASM guide, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging
Provides an in-depth evaluation of a couple of approaches lately brought or that experience come into attractiveness reminiscent of radial, rotary (orbital), precision, powder, and isothermal/hot-die forging. Plus superplastic sheet forming, and abrasive waterjet and laser slicing. New fabrics during this booklet (containing 1,200 illustrations and 250 tables) relates to the advance of thermomechanical processing, relatively with reference to aerospace alloys, and the advance of innovations and assessments to figure out steel workability/formability relationships.

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Extra resources for ASM Metals Handbook, Volume 14: Forming and Forging

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See text for details. Direct drive presses for closed-die forging usually have hydraulic oil as the working medium. At the start of the downstroke, the return cylinders are vented allowing the ram/slide assembly to fall by gravity. The reservoir used to fill the cylinder as the ram is withdrawn can be pressurized to improve hydraulic flow characteristics, but this is not mandatory. When the ram contacts the workpiece, the pilot operated check valve between the ram cylinder and the reservoir closes, and the pump builds up pressure in the ram cylinder.

The simple hypothetical calculations given above illustrate the capabilities of relatively inexpensive hammers in exerting high forming loads. Reference cited in this section 10. K. Lange, Machines for Warmforming, in Hutte, Handbook for Plant Engineers, Vol 1, Wilhelm Ernst and John Verlag, 1957, p 657 (in German) Selection of Forging Equipment Taylan Altan, The Ohio State University References 1. J. Foucher, "Influence of Dynamic Forces Upon Open Back Presses," Doctoral dissertation, Technical University, 1959 (in German) 2.

There are two basic differences between power-drop hammers used for closed-die forging and those used for open-die forging. First, a modern power-drop hammer has blow-energy control to assist the operator in setting the intensity of each blow. In hammers for closed-die forging, the hammer stroke is limited by the upper die surface contacting the surface of the lower die face. In open-die forging, the upper and lower dies do not make contact; stroke-position control is provided through control of the air or steam valve that actuates the hammer piston.

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