By Stanley P. Cauvain
Water is the main contributor to the consuming and maintaining traits and constitution of baked items. Its administration and keep an eye on in the course of guidance, processing, baking, cooling and garage is key for the optimisation of product caliber. This profitable and hugely useful quantity describes intimately the position and keep watch over of water within the formation of cake batters, bread, pastry and biscuit doughs, their next processing and the baked product.
Now in an absolutely revised and up-to-date moment version, the publication has been increased and constructed during the inclusion of latest info and references with regards to the formation and processing of batters and dough into baked items. the recent version features a number of case reviews in accordance with functional event within the manufacture and optimisation of baked items. each one case examine, illustrated as acceptable, considers some of the roles that water may well play in numerous production contexts. The e-book is geared toward nutrients scientists and technologists in bakery businesses; component providers; flour millers; researchers and scholars in educational nutrients technology departments.
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Additional info for Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality: Water Control and Effects
The rate of hydration of the protein strands 36 The Role of Water in the Formation and Processing of Bread Doughs depends on the ratio of water to protein and proceeds more rapidly when there is an excess of water. In breadmaking, the added water level does not usually exceed the flour weight and so it is unlikely that the features observed by Bernardin and Kasarda are the sole mechanisms by which protein and water come into contact with one another. Stauffer (2007), in reviewing the principles of dough formation in breadmaking, described the protein in flour as existing ‘as a flinty material’ which softened during hydration.
Damaged starch – the higher the damaged starch level, the higher the water absorption capacity. Bran content – the higher the bran content, the higher the water absorption capacity (wholemeal flour has a greater water absorption capacity than white flour). Pentosan level – the higher the pentosan level, the higher the water absorption capacity. Enzymic activity – the greater the enzymic activity, the lower the water absorption capacity. This effect is seen most commonly in breadmaking processes with significant bulk fermentation (floortime) periods, and only when levels of enzymic activity are high with no-time breadmaking processes.
The water required for this purpose may be added as water or may be derived from a number of the other ingredients that might be used. For example, cake batters commonly contain whole egg at levels too low to fully hydrate all the other ingredients, and so more water may be added as milk or simply as water according to preference. g. carrot cake, so much water comes from the ingredients used that there may be no need to make additions of extra water. All ingredients and foodstuffs try to achieve a moisture equilibrium with their surroundings and so moisture may be lost or gained with time.