Battleground: Science and Technology [2 volumes] by Sal Restivo

By Sal Restivo

Battleground: technology and expertise ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫЕ НАУКИ,НАУКА и УЧЕБА Книга: Battleground: technology and expertise Автор: H. Denton, Sal Restivo Издательство: Greenwood Страниц: 616 Формат: PDF Размер: 2,2 mb Язык: Английский Год издания: 2008The sleek global is full of debate and controversy, and technology and know-how - the main attribute gains of the trendy global - should not immune. technology and expertise are implicated in lots of if now not all the matters, problems, and difficulties scholars are inclined to come upon of their periods and of their daily lives. technological know-how and expertise function a main pathway to realizing entrance web page headlines on every thing from conflict to AIDS, and from oil exploration to worldwide warming. Battleground: technological know-how and expertise examines the main hot-button concerns regarding technological know-how and know-how and gives a balanced overview of the arguments on both sides of the usually strident debates.>> <

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Simon and Alan Newell write, “a physical symbol system is a necessary and sufficient condition for general intelligent action” (Newell and Simon 1976). The methods used to arrive at this kind of model of AI are derived from the framework of formal logic built up by George Boole, Bertrand Russell, Alfred Tarski, and Alan Turing (among many others). A “traditional” problem-solving program proceeds to calculate a solution by applying rules to a set of data representing the program’s knowledge of the world, usually at a high level of abstractions.

Rather than embracing new machinery, tools, and pesticides, organic farming attempts to produce crops in the same conditions but with no synthetic pesticides or fertilizers. Instead of using radical new farming methods, it tries to rediscover and reincorporate the farming methods of the days before chemical fertilizers and pesticides were available. This is done not only in order to produce food for which some consumers are willing to pay a premium price but also because some farmers believe it is better for both farmers and the environment to rely less on expensive new technological solutions such as pesticides and specialized equipment.

There is strong popular and expert resistance to the idea that machines might be made to “do anything people can do,” and these include some criticisms that are based in religious or other strongly held beliefs. Such philosophical and metaphysical debates are fascinating in their own right, but most practical AI research avoids them (for now) by considering only limited categories of problem-solving programs. Within the actual practice of AI research is another, more technical arena for debate.

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