Beyond the Solar System: Exploring Galaxies, Black Holes, by Mary Kay Carson

By Mary Kay Carson

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Humans have gazed into the evening sky for millions of years and puzzled, What are these twinkling lighting fixtures? although the sunlight, moon, and planets moved around the historical past of stars, the celebrities themselves seemed immovable, endlessly fastened in constellations. in basic terms whilst astronomers all started taking a more in-depth glance did a person become aware of what a desirable, ever-changing universe lies past our sunlight system—red significant and white dwarf stars, spiral galaxies, wispy nebulae, black holes, and lots more and plenty more.

In Beyond the sun System, writer Mary Kay Carson lines the evolution of humankind’s astronomical wisdom, from the conclusion that we're not on the heart of the universe to fresh telescopic evidence of planets orbiting stars open air our sun method. as well as its enticing heritage, this ebook includes 21 hands-on initiatives to extra discover the topics mentioned. Readers will construct a 3-dimensional illustration of the constellation Orion, version the warping of space-time brought on by a black gap, see how the universe expands utilizing an inflating balloon, and build a reflecting telescope out of a make-up replicate and a magnifying glass. Beyond the sunlight System additionally comprises minibiographies of recognized astronomers, a time line of significant medical discoveries, a instructed studying record, a word list of technical phrases, and a listing of sites for extra exploration.

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Extra info for Beyond the Solar System: Exploring Galaxies, Black Holes, Alien Planets, and More; A History with 21 Activities

Example text

Heavy things with lots of mass are like bowling balls on that cushion. Massive objects bend the fabric of space-time and sink into holes with sloping walls. Nearby matter flows down these slopes in space-time. This is what gravity is. It is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun. Gravity doesn’t pull an apple off a tree. The curvature of space-time creates gravity. Space and time in Einstein’s universe are not rigid and fixed, but are flexible, pushable, and changeable by matter. Gravity feels strongest where space-time is most curved, and it vanishes where space-time is uncurved.

Caroline Herschel was 22 when she moved to Bath, England, where her older brother was then working as a chapel organist. She left Germany to keep house for William and sing in his choir, but her time was quickly overtaken with his new obsession. After reading about telescopes, William Herschel was hooked. “I was so delighted with the subject that I wished to see the heavens & planets with my own eyes thro’ one of the instruments,” he wrote. Caroline Herschel was soon as entranced with the stars as her brother.

He noted the observation, so the supernova was later named after him. Newer telescopes can now study in great detail what’s left of the explosion. NASA/ESA/Johns Hopkins University 21 universal gravitation explained why planets move like they do. Orbits are squashed into ovals, or ellipses, because the Sun not only pulls on the planets, the planets pull on the Sun, too, stretching the orbiting circles into ovals. And planets speed up when they orbit closer to the Sun because of the difference in distance.

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