By Gregory Daly
В книге подробно анализируется битва при Каннах - крупнейшее сражение Второй Пунической войны, произошедшее 2 августа 216 до н. э. около городка Канны в Апулии на юго-востоке Италии, в ходе которой карфагенская армия Ганнибала нанесла сокрушительное поражение превосходящей её по численности римской армии . Это сражение и сегодня является одним из наиболее ярких примеров тактического мастерства в военной истории, а также входит в число тридцати самых кровопролитных сражений во всей человеческой истории, так как за один день погибло приблизительно 60 000-70 000 римлян и около 10 000 карфагенян. Даются подробные сведения о составе и численности армий противников, вооружении, тактике, топографии места сражения и т.д.Образцы сканов:
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Extra resources for Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War
After all, he had almost certainly not commenced researching his work until some time after his deportation to Rome, fifty-one years after Hannibal’s passage through the Alps. It is unlikely that their recollection of events would have been as clear as Polybius would have wished. In addition, old soldiers with reputations to uphold are notoriously prone to glamorise their own actions, something which Keegan terms ‘the Bullfrog Effect’ (1976, p. 33). Any Roman survivors of the battle, for instance, must have been extremely keen to justify their survival, when so many of their fellows had fallen, while surviving relatives of other participants would have been inclined to paint their ancestors in as illustrious a light as possible, making them very unreliable as sources.
It would therefore seem that the Roman army which took the field at Cannae consisted of perhaps slightly under 70,000 infantry and slightly over 6,000 cavalry. 55 Apart from the fact that the total of 50,000 troops looks suspiciously like an estimate, this figure, like the Roman one, almost certainly includes the troops who were left behind as a camp garrison (Lazenby, 1978, pp. 80–1; Walbank, 30 THE ROAD TO CANNAE 1957, p. 439). The size of this garrison is indeterminable, but a figure of 8,000 has been plausibly suggested,56 which would mean that the Carthaginian line of battle consisted of about 32,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry.
All other accounts were written considerably later; Livy, writing in the Augustan period, effectively follows the ‘Polybian’ model of the battle, as does Plutarch, a Greek biographer of the late first or early second century AD. Appian, a Greek historian of the second century, wrote an account of the battle that is distinctive by having virtually nothing in common with other accounts. 26 In the main, Polybius is to be regarded as the most important and accurate source for the battle of Cannae, but it is important to realise that his account is not to be taken at face value; his sources were far from perfect, and his use of them seems to have been somewhat naive.